These three maps [16, 17, 18] were produced as fold-outs to be inserted in Portland city directories first published in 1823. The first map in this series [16], produced by Abel Bowen, became the benchmark against which future directory maps were measured. The waterfront and Back Cove were little changed from Colonial days, with Back Cove extending to Oxford Street and Cumberland Avenue and the waterfront at Fore Street. The many streets laid out in the west end were still unbuilt. Eight years later, the 1831 edition of the directory map [17] by David C. Johnson, eliminates the yet-to-be realized streets in the west end as laid out on the Bowen map and adds only modest changes for the intervening years. The 1852 plan [18] published by S. H. Colesworthy shows dramatic changes in just twenty one years. Back Cove was filled by Charles Q. Clapp, creating an area for real estate development and railroad expansion. By 1851, the waterfront had moved outward as the city built Commercial Street at a cost of $80,000. Few of the Munjoy Hill and the West End streets were were actually constructed as proposed here on this map.

Map of the City of Portland, Cumberland County, Maine, From the Original Surveys of Henry F. Walling, Civil Engineer, 1851

Accurate, large scale wall maps such as these [14] [15] would later serve as design models and graphic resource for county atlas production which gained momentum in the 1870's after the civil war. This rare 1851 wall map [14] by Henry F. Walling, a Civil Engineer, offers a detailed glimpse of Portland's Federal Period.

Walling, Henry F.
Lithograph, 80 x 63 cm
Courtesy of Earle G. Shettleworth, Jr.

Russell’s New Map of Portland ME from the Latest Surveys 1869

The post-fire 1869 map [15] by Russell reveals how quickly Portland rebuilt its commercial center.

John Russell and B.B. Russell
Lithograph, 61.5 x 48 cm
Osher Map Library and Smith Center
for Cartographic Education

A New and Correct Plan of Portland Maine 1823

Abel Bowen
From: Nathaniel G. Jewett, The Portland Register and Directory
(Portland, 1823)
Engraving, 29 x 24 cm
Courtesy of Maine Historical Society

Plan of Portland Engraved for the Directory, 1831

David G. Johnson
From: The Portland Directory (Portland: [Arthur Shirley], 1831)
Engraving, 28 x 23 cm
Osher Map Library and Smith Center
for Cartographic Education

Plan of Portland Engraved as a Directory, 1852

David G. Johnson
Edited by S. H. Colesworthy
From: Portland Directory, and Reference Book,
For 1852-53 (Portland: S. B. Beckett, 1852)
Engraving, 24 x 28.5 cm
Courtesy Maine Historical Society

H.H. Hay Drug Establishment

This illustration [20] of the H. H. Hay & Co. building at the intersection of Free and Middle streets was included among a number of vignettes on Chace's 1858 wall map of Cumberland County. This relates to the original lithographic stone [19], with which it was printed, is a rare artifact of nineteenth century map and view production.

Lithographic stone and the inset of H.H. Hay Drug Establishment
on Chace’s Cumberland County wall map
Courtesy of Earle G. Shettleworth, Jr.

H.H. Hay Drug Establishment

J. Chace
Inset from Chace’s Cumberland County wall map, 1857
Lithograph, facsimile, 10.5 x 13.5 cm
Osher Map Library and Smith Center
for Cartographic Education